Lead Chemical Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)

Lead is a soft metal in the periodic table. Let us view facts related to lead.

Lead is a dull silvery grey metal that tarnishes when exposed to air. Lead is a very malleable, ductile, and high-density metal and is an isolator.

In detail, let us focus on the melting point, boiling point, ionic radius, isotopes, ionization energy, and many other facts about lead in this article.

Lead symbol

The lead atomic symbol is Pb. The symbol of lead contains two letters.

Lead group in the periodic table

Lead is placed in the 14th group in the periodic table. The 14th group is called the carbon group.

Lead Period in the periodic table

The lead comes under the 6th period in the periodic table. The last electron of lead comes under 6th dop.

Lead block in the periodic table

Lead is a p-block element as its valenselektrone belong to the 6p orbit.

Lead atomic number

Lead has atomic number 82 as it contains 82 electrons and 82 protons, in the shell and nucleus respectively.

Lead Atomic Weight

The atomic weight of lead is 207.2 u. It is the actual mass of a lead atom.

Symbolic representation of lead

Lead Electronegativity, according to Pauling

In the Pauling electronegativity scale, lead has an electronegativity of 2.33. Linus Pauling finds the scale.

Lead Atomic Density

The atomic density of lead is 11.29 g/ml. It indicates lead is 11.29 denser than water.

Lead Melting point

Lead has a smeltpunt of 327. 5℃. Lead melts at high temperatures.

Lead Boiling point

The lead has a boiling point of 1749℃. Lead has a lower kookpunt compared to other carbon group elements.

Lead Vander waals Radius

The Vander Waals radius of lead is 202pm or 0.202 nm. The atomic radius of lead is 0.175nm, less than the Vander Waals radius of lead.

Lead Ionic/Covalent Radius

The covalent bond of lead is 175 pm. The Pb2+ is 119pm and Pb+ is 106 pm, respectively.

Lead Isotopes

Isotopes are a group of chemical elements having atomic number same and difference in the atomic mass.Let us study isotopes of lead in detail.

There are mainly 4 different isotopes of lead. They are given below.

Isotopes of LeadAtoomgetalAtoommassa
204 Pb82203.973
Isotopes of lead

Lead Electronic Shell

An electronic shell can be defined as the definite energy levels where the electrons are seen around the nucleus. Let us see about the lead electronic shell.

Lead has 6 electronic shells surrounding the nucleus. The shell configuration is 2,8,18,32,18,4, where the outer electronic shell contains 4 electrons.

Lead Energy of First Ionization

Lead has the first ionization energy of 716 KJ/mol. Due to higher charge density, the lead has relatively higher ionization energy.

Lead energy of second ionization

The second ionization energy of lead is 1449 KJ/mol. Due to the higher nuclear charge, the second ionization energy of lead is high.

Lead energy of third ionization

The third ionization energy of lead is 3082KJ/mol. Due to increased nuclear charge, the third ionization energy of lead is very high compared to the first and second ionisasie-energie.

Lead Oxidation states

Compounds of lead are usually seen in the 2-oxidation state rather than the 4-state common in other elements of the carbon family. Lead exists mainly in three oxidation states.

  • Pb (0)
  • Pb (I)
  • Pb (II)
  • Pb (IV)

Lead Electron Configuration

Lead has 82 electrons which are arranged as:.1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2.The electronic can be simply represented as [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2.

Lead CAS Number

Lead has a CAS number 7439 – 92 – 1. According to CAS numbering lead is classified as a toxic pollutant.

Lead ChemSpider ID

The ChemSpider ID for lead is given as 4509317. With this number lead, Chemical facts can be easily obtained from the ChemSpider database.

Lead allotropic forms

Allotropes are various structures of the same element that bind each other with different physical properties. Let us learn different allotropic forms of lead.

Lead does not have an allotropic form since Pb-Pb bonds are too weak.

Lead Chemical Classification

  • Lead is classified as a p-block metallic element.
  • Lead is a radioactive metal.
  • Lead is acid resistant.
  • Lead is a post-transition metal.

Lead state at Room Temperature

Lead is solid at room temperature. Lead has a relatively higher boiling point and melting point than at room temperature.

Is lead paramagnetic?

Paramagnetism is the property of a substance to be attracted to a magnet. A paramagnetic substance has unpaired electrons. Let us study whether a lead is paramagnetic or not.

Lead is not paramagnetic since it has no unpaired electrons.


Lead is a silvery grey metal that belongs to the 14th group and 6th period in the periodic table. The lead atomic symbol is Pb, and the atomic number is 82. Lead is corrosion-resistant, but also tarnishes in contact with air. Lead has widely been used in batteries, pigments, etc. It is diamagnetic.

lead chemical properties