Gold Chemical Properties(25) Facts You Should Know

Gold is a metal which is malleable, ductile and lustrous in nature with some unique properties. Let us discuss about various facts about Gold in this article.

Gold is a bright yellow colored metal with atomic radius about 144 pm in periodic table. With a face-centered cubic lattice, it has good electrical and thermal conductivity. It is least reactive with acids except aqua regia. It is resistive to corrosion and deposited in alluvium and veins.

Gold is unreactive in nature due to the completely filled 5d orbital. In the parts that follow, let’s talk about Gold’s characteristics such oxidation state, covalent radius, and paramagnetism.

Gold Symbol

The chemical symbol of Gold is Au.  This symbol derives from the Latin word “aurum”, which means gold. It was first found in Middle east before 6000 BCE.

Chemical Symbol of Gold

Gold group in periodic table

Gold is included in the group 11 of the periodic table. It lies below silver (Ag) and above Roentgenium(Rg).

Gold period in periodic table

Gold belongs to period 6 of the periodic table. It lies after platinum (Pt) and before mercury (Hg).

Gold block in periodic table

The Gold metal is classified as belonging to the d block of the periodic because its final electron enters the d orbital of the sub shell.

Gold atomic number

Gold has an atomic number of 79. It tells us that there are 79 electrons in gold.

Gold atomic weight

Die atoommassa of Gold is 196.97. This value can sometimes increase or decrease up to 0.01.

Gold electronegativity according to Pauling

Die elektronegatiwiteit of Gold is 2.54. Gold has a lower electron-attracting capacity than fluorine but a higher one than silver.

Gold atomic density

The atomic density of Gold is found to be 19.3g/cm3. So in gold there is 19.3 atoms present per unit volume.

Gold melting point

Die smeltpunt of Gold is 1337.33 Kelvin or 1064.18 degree Celsius.

Gold boiling point

The boiling point of Gold is 3243 Kelvin or 2970 degree Celsius. Gold can resist temperatures that are exceedingly high.

Gold Vanderwaals Radius

The vanderwaals radius of Gold is found to be 166 pm. Vanderwaals force is also termed as London dispersion forces.

Gold ionic or covalent radius

The covalent radius of Gold is 136 pm. By 6 pm, this figure can be raised or lowered.

Gold isotopes

The chemical symbol for the element with the atomic number as subscript and the mass number as superscript is used to represent isotopes. Let’s check if gold has isotopes or not.

For gold, five isotopes have been identified. In which one is naturally present with 100% abundance rest of the isotopes are synthetically made. All of the gold isotopes are shown in the table below.

Isotopes of Gold

Gold electronic shells

The electron holding capacity of each shell in an atom can be calculated by the formula 2n2, where n is the shell number. Let’s talk about Gold’s electronic shell.

Gold’s electronic shell configuration is discovered to be 2,8,18,32,18,1.

Gold energy of first ionization

The energy of first ionization of Gold is 890.1 KJ/mol. Here, releasing the loosely electron from the outer shell just needs a small amount of energy.

Gold energy of second ionization

The second energy of ionization of Gold is 1980 KJ/mol. A monopositive Gold atom’s next electron must be removed with a lot of energy.

Gold energy of third ionization

The third ionization energy is not found yet. This is because of the high stability and inertness of the element.

Gold oxidation state

The oxidation state of Gold is -3,-2 ,- 1,0, + 1,+ 2, + 3,+5. This means Gold can withdraw one to five electrons and can accept up to three electrons.

Gold electron configuration

The electronic configuration of Gold is 4f14  5d10  6s1 . The d orbital is inert since it is fully filled, and a high level of stability is discovered.

Gold CAS number

The CAS Number of Gold is 7440-57-5.

Gold ChemSpider ID

The chemspider ID of Gold is 22421.

Gold Allotropic Forms

Allotropic forms of carbon is diamond, graphite and fullerene. Let’s find out whether there are any allotropes of gold.

There is no distinct form or allotrope for gold is found. Only two forms were found very scarcely. One is common that is yellow variety with lustrous in nature, and the other one is red, brown colored substance which is non -lustrous  and is amorphous in nature.

Gold chemical classification

Gold is a d block element that is part of group eleven and period six of the periodic table. It is a transition metal with exceptional qualities that enable it to be used for a wide range of applications across multiple industries.

Gold State at room temperature

Gold is a solid at room temperature.

Is Gold Paramagnetic?

Electrons in paramagnetic materials spin in the same direction when they are not coupled. Let’s check to see if gold is magnetic or not.

A paramagneties element is gold. It has one unpaired electron, which is why. Electronically, it is set up as 4f14 5d10 6s1. The element becomes paramagnetic due to one unpaired electron in the s orbital.


Gold is a precious metal used in jewelry, electrical connectors, for making colored glass and sometimes as anti-inflammatory. Gold acquires good strength when it is get alloyed with certain soft metals.

Aparna Dev

Hallo... Ek is Aparna Dev, 'n chemie Nagraadse met 'n goeie begrip van chemie konsepte. Ek werk in Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited Kollam met ondervinding in die ontwikkeling van elektrokatalisators as deel van nagraadse tesis. Kom ons koppel deur LinkedIn-

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