Cytoplasm And Protoplasm: 7 Facts You Should Know


Cytoplasm and protoplasm are two different terminologies, often used interchangeably to refer to nearly similar parts of a cell. Let us see what they are in detail.

sitoplasma refers to all components of a cell embedded in cytosol and enclosed within the cell membrane except nucleus. On the other hand, protoplasm defines every component of cell enclosed within the cell membrane, that is all the organelles present within cytoplasm including the cell nucleus. 

Let us discuss how and why these terms are similar or different to each other, followed by the components of protoplasm and cytoplasm along with its functions.

How is cytoplasm and protoplasm same?

Cytoplasm and protoplasm are collective terms used to refer to the different parts of a cell. Let us see how or in what way they are similar.

Cytoplasm and protoplasm are very similar in composition and function. As a result, these two terms are often used interchangeably but they have separate definitions. Of both these terms, cytoplasm can be said to be a part of protoplasm. So, protoplasm is a combination of cytoplasm and kern.

Differences between cytoplasm and protoplasm

Both cytoplasm and protoplasm differ slightly from each other in their composition and function due to the presence and absence of nucleus. Let us look into those points of differences.

Major differences between cytoplasm and protoplasm are given below:

sitoplasmaProtoplasma
DefinisieThe whole cell minus nucleus, cell membrane and anything outside the cell membrane.The whole cell minus cell membrane and anything outside the cell membrane.
samestellingCytosol and all the cell organelles except nucleus.Cytosol along with all the organelles present in a cell.
kernNucleus is not a part of the cytoplasm whether in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells.Nucleus is a part of it.
Genetic materials Contains only cytoplasmic genetic material.Contains both nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic materials.
FunksiesStructural integrity of the cell, proteins synthesis, membrane transportation, metabolic activities, osmotic balance.All the functions of the cytoplasm including RNA synthesis, controlling all the metabolic activities of a cell.
Differences between cytoplasm and protoplasm

Similarities between cytoplasm and protoplasm

Both cytoplasm and protoplasm possess the cytosol embedded with several organelles along with sitoskelette. Let us see how they are similar.

Major similarities between cytoplasm and protoplasm are given below:

sitoplasmaProtoplasma

samestelling
It is composed of cytosol and all the cell organelles except the nucleus, embedded in it.Protoplasm has similar composition to that of the cytoplasm too, except for one organelle, i.e., nucleus.
Genetic materialContains the genetic materials present in the organelles except the nucleus.Contains Genetic material of all the organelles present in the cytosol.
FunksiesMaintain cell integrity, shape and osmotic balance, takes part in membrane transport and metabolism.Performs similar functions to that of cytoplasm and more.
Similarities between cytoplasm and protoplasm

Components of protoplasm

Protoplasm provides shape to the cells with the help of the cytoskeletons present within the sitosol. Let us see the components of protoplasm.

Protoplasm is composed of all elements that are necessary for the growth of a cell biomass, whether in prokaryotic or eukaryotic. It possesses the gel like cytosol composed of water, salts, proteins and inorganic molecules within which all the cell organelles are secured.

Components of cytoplasm

Similar to protoplasm, cytoplasm is a gelatinous structure which provides shape to the cells. Let us see the components of cytoplasm in detail.

Cytoplasm is composed of cytosol enclosed within the cell membrane. Cytosol in turn is again, composed of water, salts, proteins and inorganic compounds. Cytoplasm includes all the components of a cell present in between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Functions of cytoplasm and protoplasm

Each organelle involves in certain functions for the efficient functioning of a cell. Let us explore some of the functions of cytoplasm and protoplasm in detail.

Groot functions of cytoplasm and protoplasm word hieronder gelys:

  1. Cell shape: cytoplasm and protoplasm possess different types of cytoskeletons which are proteinaceous in nature and allow the cell to maintain a defined shape and size.
  2. Cell growth and division: Every cell undergoes growth metabolism until it reaches the maturation phase at which is becomes fully functional. After maturation, cell either undergoes selverdeling or focuses solely on its determined functions and stops dividing.
  3. Selmetabolisme: These are metabolic processes that a cell undertakes in order to maintain its functional identity until cell death, such as cellular respiration, protein synthesis, photosynthesis and so on.
  4. Cellular transport: Cytoplasm and protoplasm allow movement of biomolecules, gases and ions throughout the cell cytosol. For example, mRNA is transported from the nucleoplasm to the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol for transcription, followed by the transport of the protein formed to the Golgi apparatus for packaging.
  5. Heredity: Protoplasm is comprised of the nucleus which contain the hereditary genetic material of a species. Both protoplast and cytoplast contain organellar nucleic acids too which are heritable in nature, such as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA.
  6. Biosynthesis: Biosynthesis of several carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids take place in either the cytosol or the nucleoplasm. The cells also have specialized membranous organelles to store these products as well. 
  7. Compartmentalization: Several processes take place in a cell simultaneously but none of the processes interfere with the other unless they are a part of a cascade. This is because the cytoplasm and the protoplasm make compartment throughout the cells to allow different activities to take place simultaneously.

Gevolgtrekking

Cytoplasm and protoplasm are two different terms, although very similar in their composition owing to which their functions are similar too.

Tulika Priyadarshini

Hallo ... ek is Tulika Priyadarshini, 'n varser in biotegnologie wat in die veld van navorsing werk. Skryf gee my geestelike vrede en bevrediging. Om die kennis wat ek in die proses opdoen te deel, is 'n kersie op die koek. My artikels hou verband met Lewenswetenskappe, Biologie en Biotegnologie. Kom ons koppel deur LinkedIn- https://www.linkedin.com/in/tulika-priyadarshini/

Onlangse plasings