Chromium Chemical Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)

Chromium is a high-value metal due to its strong corrosive and resistance properties. Let us discuss various chemical facts associated with it.

Chromium is a transition metal and its availability in the earth’s crust is 0.0122%. It is steel-grey in appearance and is a lustrous, brittle and hard element. Due to all of these chemical properties, it is deemed the world’s third hardest element.

Chromium metal has a diverse role due to its chemical properties. For instance, it is used in the metallurgical and textile industries. Let us study its properties like electronegativity, classification and various periodic properties.

Chromium symbol

Chemical symbols are the abbreviation of scientific names of an element, compound, or functional group. Let us find the same for chromium.

The symbol of chromium is Cr.

chromium chemical properties
Symbolic and 3D representation of chromium

Chromium group in the periodic table

In a periodic table, a group is a vertical column that represents elements of the same family. Let us check out the group of chromium.

Chromium belongs to group 6 of the periodic table and belongs to the refractory metal family which implies the metals which are extraordinarily resistant to heat.

Chromium period in the periodic table

A period is an arrangement in the periodic table where there is a change of trend moving from left to right. Let us check the period of chromium.

Chromium belongs to the 4th period of the periodic table according to its atomic properties.

Chromium block in the periodic table

A block is a zone in the periodic table made by adjacent groups based on valences in their atomic orbitals. Let us figure it out in chromium.

Chromium belongs to the d block (diffused) of the periodic table which consists of transition metal elements.

Chromium atomic number

Die atoomgetal (Z) is an identification number of the element represented by the protons in the nucleus. Let us look for the same in chromium.

The atomic number of chromium is 24 as it has 24 protons equals 24 electrons, a condition which is mandatory for atomic number.

Chromium atomic weight

Atomic weight is the mass of the atom which is completely situated in the nucleus comprising protons and neutrons. Let us figure it out for chromium.

The atomic weight of chromium is 51.9661 u.

Chromium electronegativity according to Pauling

Electronegativity is one of the significant electronic properties unique to every element according to the periodic table setup. Let us find it out for chromium on the Pauling scale.

The electronegativity of chromium according to the Pauling scale is 1.66 which implies less electronegativity due to its metallic character.

Chromium atomic density

Atomic density is the number of atoms with their mass per unit volume. Let us discuss the atomic density of chromium.

The atomic density of chromium is 7.15 g/cm3.

Chromium melting point

The melting point is a critical temperature where there is a change of state and exists at equilibrium. Let us evaluate the melting point of chromium.

The melting point of chromium is 1890 degree Celsius which is very high due to its refractory properties and easy heat resistance.

Chromium boiling point

The boiling point is related to the structure of the element and the pressure applied. Let us describe the boiling point of chromium.

The boiling point of chromium is 2672 degree Celsius in accordance with the atmospheric pressure.

Chromium Vanderwaals radius

Van Der Waals radius is an imaginary radius where an atom is considered a hard sphere and is not chemically bound. Let us look for the Vanderwaal radius in chromium.

The van der Waals radius of chromium is 200pm which is usually measured hypothetically to access measurements in the non-bonded state.

Chromium ionic radius

Ionic radius as the name suggests is the radius of an ion which is heavily dependent on the charge. Let us check the same for chromium.

The ionic radius of Cr3+ is 0.62 angstroms. The more the charge, the less the ionic radius is – the concept that is always followed due to strong forces.

Chromium isotopes

isotope are usually formed due to differences in the sub-atomic particles in the same element. Let us check the same for chromium.

Chromium has 4 naturally occurring isotopes which vary according to their abundance. These isotopes are:

  • 50Cr
  • 52Cr
  • 53Cr
  • 54Cr

Chromium electronic shells

Electronic shells are the orbits around the nucleus which have electrons according to the energy differences. Let us find out the no. of electronic shells in chromium.

There are 4 electronic shells in chromium. It has 24 electrons hence the division in energy levels will be 2, 8, 13, 1.

Chromium energy of first ionization

eerste ionisasie-energie is related to electron-withdrawing, and it depends on the various electronic factors. Let us check the same in chromium.

The energy of the first ionization in chromium is 652.9 Kg/mol which is a little bit high as the electron needs to be removed from stable d5 which requires more energy.

Chromium energy of second ionization

Like the first ionization energy, the second energy is the removal of the 2nd electron. Let us check the energy requirement for the same in chromium.

The second ionization energy in chromium is 1590.6 Kg/mol which is much higher than the first one because of difficult removal from a d5 half-filled stable orbital.

Chromium energy of third ionization

Like 1 and 2 the third ionization energy concerns itself with the energy required for the removal of 3rd electron. Let us compute it for chromium.

The third ionization energy of chromium is 2987 Kg/mol.

Chromium oxidation states

Die oksidasie toestand is the charge on an element when it undergoes bonding, especially ionic bonding. Let us find the oxidation states of chromium.

The most stable oxidation state of chromium is +3 though it can exist in many oxidation states ranging from -2 to +6 which is evident from its colored complex formation.

Chromium electron configuration

Die elektronkonfigurasie of any element is decided based on angular quantum numbers. Let us check the electron configuration of chromium.

The electron configuration of chromium is [Ar]3d54s1 where Ar signifies the electron configuration of noble gas argon.

Chromium CAS number

MAS-nommer is a chemical identifier for easy finding of any element by chemical abstract service. Let us look out for the CAS number of chromium.

The CAS number of chromium is 7440-47-3.

Chromium ChemSpider ID

ChemSpider ID is a unique code for every element designated by the database for easy information access. Let us check the same for chromium.

The ChemSpider ID for chromium is 22412.

Chromium allotropic forms

Allotropic forms are different forms of the same element with changes in their physical appearances due to changes in the arrangements. Let us discuss the same in chromium.

Chromium does not exhibit allotropism. Hence there is only a single structure and no allotropic forms.

Chromium chemical classification

Chemical classification gives insight into the elements. Let us classify chromium chemically.

The characteristics of chromium are:

  • Chromium is the third hardest element on earth which prevents its corrosion and increases its resistive property.
  • Due to the unique magnetic properties of chromium, it exhibits specular reflection in the presence of infrared radiations.
  • Chromium, like gold, is considered a metal of value due to its significant dominance in ruby stone.
  • Chromium is a rough metal and can withstand extreme conditions due to which it can undergo a varied degree of complexation.

Chromium state at room temperature

The state of matter depends on the pressure, temperature conditions and the properties of the elements. Let us check the state of chromium.

Chromium is a hard and brittle solid at room temperature.

Is Chromium paramagnetic?

Para magnetisme is exhibited by elements with unpaired electrons and weakly attracted magnetic fields. Let us check out the magnetism for chromium.

Chromium is paramagnetic because it has 6 unpaired electrons according to its electronic configuration.


In a nutshell, chromium is a cubic-centered transition metal solid that due to its brittle and hard structure has many resistive properties. It is an element with a half-filled stable electronic configuration which in turn influences its chemical properties.

Mansi Sharma

Hallo, ek is Mansi Sharma, ek het my meestersgraad in Chemie voltooi. Ek glo persoonlik dat leer meer entoesiasties is as dit met kreatiwiteit geleer word. Ek is 'n vakkundige in chemie. Kom ons koppel deur LinkedIn:

Onlangse plasings