Cerium Properties (23 Facts You Should Know)


Ce or Cerium is the rare earth metal and the most abundant member of the lantaniedreeks. Let us discuss cerium in this article.

Ce or cerium is the second element of the lanthanide series and it is soft, ductile, and silvery-white in colour. The f orbital of cerium is deep-seated so the 6s orbital acts as the valence orbital for the lanthanides. Due to the presence of 6s orbital, it has a relativistic effect.

In this article, we will discuss the position of cerium in the periodic table, along with its melting point, boiling point, oxidation state, ionization energy and many related facts.

Cerium symbol

The atomic symbol of Cerium is “Ce”.

Cerium Symbol

Cerium period in the periodic table

Cerium belongs to period 6 in the periodieke tabel because it has more than 54 electrons in the valence shell.

Cerium block in the periodic table

Cerium is an f-blok element because the valence electrons are present in the f orbital.

Cerium atomic number

The atomic number of Cerium is 58, which means it has 58 protons and 58 electrons because the number of protons is always equal to the number of electrons.

Cerium atomic Weight

The atomic weight of Cerium is 140 on the 12C scale which means the weight of Cerium is the 294/12th deel van die gewig van die koolstofelement.

Cerium Electronegativity according to Pauling

The electronegativity of Cerium is 1.12 according to the Pauling scale. Ce is rare earth metal so it possesses an electropositive character which reflects in its electronegativity value.

Cerium atomic Density

The atomic density of Cerium is 6.77 g/cm3 which can be calculated by dividing the mass of Cerium by its volume.

  • Digtheid word bereken deur die formule, atoomdigtheid = atoommassa / atoomvolume.
  • So, the atomic density of Cerium is, 140.132/ (22.4) = 6.25 g/cm3

Cerium melting point

The melting point of Cerium is 7950C or 1068K temperature because it is a ductile metal.

Cerium boiling point

The boiling point of Cerium is 32570C of 3530K.

Cerium Van der Waals radius

The Van der Waal’s radius of Cerium is 248 pm.

Cerium ionic radius

Die ioniese radius of Cerium is 248 pm which is the same as the covalent radius because for Cerium the cation and anion are the same and it is not an ionic molecule. Rather, it forms by the covalent interaction between two Cerium atoms.

Cerium isotopes

Elemente met dieselfde aantal elektrone maar verskillende massagetalle word genoem isotope of the original element. Let us discuss the isotopes of Cerium.

Cerium has 49 isotopes depending on the neutral numbers which are –

  • 119Ce
  • 120Ce
  • 121Ce
  • 122Ce
  • 123Ce
  • 124Ce
  • 125Ce
  • 126Ce
  • 127Ce
  • 128Ce
  • 129Ce
  • 130Ce
  • 130mCe
  • 131Ce
  • 131mCe
  • 132Ce
  • 132mCe
  • 133Ce
  • 133mCe
  • 134Ce
  • 135Ce
  • 135mCe
  • 136Ce
  • 136mCe
  • 137Ce
  • 137mCe
  • 138Ce
  • 138mCe
  • 139Ce
  • 139mCe
  • 140Ce
  • 140mCe
  • 141Ce
  • 142Ce
  • 143Ce
  • 144Ce
  • 145Ce
  • 146Ce
  • 147Ce
  • 148Ce
  • 149Ce
  • 150Ce
  • 151Ce
  • 152Ce
  • 153Ce
  • 154Ce
  • 155Ce
  • 156Ce
  • 157Ce

Among 49 isotopes only 9 isotopes of cerium are stable which are discussed below –

isotoopNatuurlike
Oorvloed
Halfleeftydafgee
deeltjies
Aantal van
neutron
134CeSintetiese3.16 d76
136Ce0.186%stabieleN / A78
138Ce0.251%stabieleN / A80
139CeSintetiese137.640 d81
140Ce88.449%stabieleN / A82
141CeSintetiese32.510 dβ83
142Ce11.114%stabieleN / A84
143CeSintetiese33.09 pmβ85
144CeSintetiese284.39 dβ86
Isotopes of Cerium

 

Cerium electronic shell

The shell surrounding the nucleus as per principal quantum number and holding the electrons is called an electronic shell. Let us discuss the electronic shell of Cerium.

The electronic shell distribution of Cerium is 2 8 18 19 9 2 because it has s, p, d, and f orbitals around the nucleus.

Cerium electron configurations

The electronic configuration of Cerium is 1s2  2s2  2p6  3s2  3p 3d10  4s2  4p6  4d10  4f1  5s2  5p6  5d1  6s2 because it has 58 electrons and those electrons should be placed to the nearest orbital of the nucleus s, p, d, and f orbitals and denoted as [Xe]4f15d16s2.

Cerium energy of first ionization

The first ionization value for Cerium is 534.4 KJ/mol because the electron is removed from the 6s orbital which is subject to relativistic contraction.

Cerium energy of second ionization

Die 2nd ionization energy of Cerium is 1050 KJ/mol because, in the 2nd ionization, electrons are removed from the same 6s orbital. Upon 2nd ionization, Ce does not lose its stability but the 2nd electron is removed from the excited state so it requires much energy.

Cerium energy of third ionization

The third ionization energy for Cerium is 1949 KJ/mol because the third ionization occurs from 5d orbital which has a poor shielding effect so the energy required is very high.

Cerium oxidation states

Cerium shows +1, +2, +3, and +4 oxidation state (which is stable in aqueous solution) because of the availability of electrons in its 6s, 5d, and 4f orbitals and all the above oxidation state is stable for Ce.

Cerium CAS number

The CAS number of the Cerium molecule is 7440-45-1, wat deur die chemiese abstrakte diens gegee word.

Cerium Chem Spider ID

The Chem Spider ID for Cerium is 22411. By using this number, we can evaluate all the chemical data related to the Cerium atom.

Cerium allotropic forms

allotrope are elements or molecules with similar chemical properties but different physical properties. Let us discuss the allotropic form of Cerium.

Cerium has four allotropes depending on the temperature and they are –

  • α-Cerium – it exists at a high temperature below -1260C having a face-centered cubic structure.
  • β-Cerium – stable at -1500C and has a double hexagonal close-packed structure.
  • γ-Cerium – stable at below 7260C and having a face-centered cubic structure
  • δ-Cerium – has a body-centered cubic crystal structure and exists at above 7260C.
  • There is an equilibrium that exists between β and γ cerium at 750C.

Cerium chemical classification

Cerium is classified into the following categories:

  • Ce is the rare earth element
  • Ce is lanthanide ductile metal

Cerium state at room temperature

Cerium exists in a solid at room temperature because it exists in the double hexagonal face-packed lattice structure.

Is Cerium paramagnetic?

Paramagnetisme is the tendency of magnetization in the direction of the magnetic field. Let us see whether Cerium is paramagnetic or not.

Cerium is paramagnetic because it has one unpaired electron in its ultimate 4f and pre-ultimate 5d orbital and due to heavier elements, the magnetic moment not only depends on spin-only value but also there is some orbital contribution present.

Gevolgtrekking

Cerium is a lanthanide metal element having a variable oxidation state. Cerium (IV) oxide can be used for polishing glass and important part of the catalytic converter. Cerium metal is also used for ferrocerium lighter due to its pyrophoric properties.

Biswarup Chandra Dey

Hi......ek is Biswarup Chandra Dey, ek het my Meestersgraad in Chemie voltooi. My spesialiseringsgebied is Anorganiese Chemie. Chemie gaan nie net oor lees reël vir reël en memorisering nie, dit is 'n konsep om op 'n maklike manier te verstaan ​​en hier deel ek met jou die konsep oor chemie wat ek leer omdat kennis die moeite werd is om dit te deel.

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