Ca3N2 Lewis Structure & Characteristics: 17 Complete Facts

Calcium nitride or Ca3N2 is an inorganic solid molecule having a molecular weight of 142.248 g/mol. Let’s discuss Ca3N2 in detail in this article with an explanation.

Three Ca atoms satisfy the valency of two N atoms and vice versa. Here the bi valency of Ca and tri valency of N are fully satisfied by the suitable number of bonds. The central atom N is sp2 hybridized here along with double bond and lone pairs and each N atom is connected with two Ca atoms respectively.

The geometry of the molecule is trigonal planar for both N atoms separately. Even the bond angle for both N atoms is the same because their environment is also the same. In the following section, let us explain lewis structure, hybridization, and polarity of Ca3N2 with proper explanation.

1.      How to draw the Ca3N2 lewis struktuur?

When we try to find out some important properties of a compound, it is the best way to draw its lewis structure. Let’s draw the Ca3N2 lewis structure in the next part.

Tel die valenselektrone

The total valence electrons should be counted first when we draw a lewis structure. It is the number of summation of constituent atoms. The valence electrons of Ca3N2 are 16, where each N contributes 5 electrons and 2 electrons for each Ca. Because those number of electrons are available in the valence shell.

Die keuse van die sentrale atoom

In die 2nd step, we should select one atom as a central atom, because concerning the central atom all the surrounding atoms are connected through bonds. Now based on size and electronegativity N is chosen as the central atom here. Both N has the same moiety so both are central atoms.

Bevredig die oktet

Now we should connect each atom through the bonds by satisfying the octet of each atom. As per octet, we should try to complete the valence shell of each atom by two electrons and eight electrons respectively. So, as per octet total electrons needed are [(2*3) + (8*2)] = 22, those are accumulated by bonds.

Bevredig die valensie

Each atom has a specific number of valencies on the availability of the electrons in the valence shell. The stable valency of Ca and N are 2 and 3 respectively. After completing the octet by [(22-16) = 6/2] = 3 bonds between five atoms, those valencies are satisfied by both atoms.

2.      Ca3N2 valenselektrone

Those electrons are referred to as valence electrons which are present in the outermost orbital of respective atoms. Let us count the valence electrons for Ca3N2.

The total number of valence electrons of Ca3N2 was calculated at 16. Those electrons are the summation of valence electrons of three Ca atoms and two N atoms, so a molecule’s valence electrons will be the sum of the valence electrons of constituent atoms.

Count the total valence electrons for Ca3N2 soos hieronder

  • The valence electron for the Ca atom is 2
  • Die valenselektrone vir N is 5
  • The total valence electrons for Ca3N2 are (2*3) + (5*2) = 16

3.      Ca3N2 lewis struktuur eensame pare

Lone pairs are the valence electrons also but they are not involved in the bond formation they exist as non-bonded. Let us find out the lone pairs of Ca3N2.

Total lone pair for the Ca3N2 are 4. N has more valence electrons including non-bonded electrons. It has two non-bonded electrons after the formation of the suitable number of bonds. But in the case of Ca, all the valence electrons are involved in bond formation so it lacks lone pairs.

  • Now we check the valence electrons for Ca3N2 in detail by the formula, Lone pairs = valence electrons – bonded electron.
  • The lone pairs over the Ca atom is 2-2 = 0
  • The lone pairs over the N atom are 5-3 = 2
  • So, the total number of lone pairs of the Ca3N2 molecule will be 2*2 = 4 (as two N atoms are present).

4.      Ca3N2 lewis struktuur oktet reël

Octet is the completion of the valence orbital by accepting a suitable number of electrons or sharing electrons. Let us discuss the Ca3N2 octet in detail.

The octet of Ca3N2 is completed via satisfying their valency separately. The electronic configuration of Ca and N are [Ar]4s2 en [Hy] 3s23p3. So, the valence s orbital of Ca is already filled and when it donates two electrons its configuration is the same as a noble gas and its stable valency will be two.

Again, when N accepts three electrons, it can complete its valence p orbital by six electrons and already has two electrons in its s orbital, so N completes the octet via eight electrons. The stable valency of N is three which can also be satisfied by the donation of electrons from the p orbital.

5.      Ca3N2 Lewis struktuur vorm

The molecular shape is the particular shape that is arranged by the constituent atoms of that molecule by proper orientation. Let us predict the shape of Ca3N2.

The lewis structure shape of the Ca3N2 is bent around each N atom which can be confirmed from the following table.

Aantal van
Aantal van
Vorm  meetkunde    
AX10lineêre  lineêre
AX2        20lineêre  lineêre  
AX       11lineêre  lineêre  
AX2E     21gebuigDriehoekig
AX2     12lineêre  Driehoekig
AX3E     31Driehoekig
AX2E2    2             2gebuigtetraëdriese
AX3                     13lineêre  tetraëdriese
Ca3N2 Molekulêre vorm

From the above diagram, it is clear that Ca3N2 is 'n BYL2E type of molecule and as per VSEPR (Valence Shell Electrons Pair Repulsion) theory, it is shown that any AX2E type of molecule adopts a bent shape instead of trigonal planar geometry. Because the shape cannot predict including the lone pairs.

6.      Ca3N2 Lewis struktuur hoek

A bond angle is that perfect angle that makes by the constituent atoms of a molecule for proper orientation. Let us find out the bond angle of Ca3N2.

The bond angle value of the Ca3N2 is ongeveer 1040. It is quite similar to bond angle with water because both have the same shape. The ideal bond angle for trigonal planar will be 1200 but when the molecule changes its geometry to bent, the molecule will be contracted and the bond angle will be decreased.

  • The bond angle is now predicted from the hybridization value of the central atom.
  • The bond angle formula according to Bent’s rule is COSθ = s/(s-1).
  • The central atom N is sp2 hybridized, so the s character here is 1/3rd
  • So, the bond angle is, COSθ = {(1/3)} / {(1/3)-1} =-( ½)
  • Θ = COS-1(-1/2) = 1200
  • But here shape of the molecule has deviated so the bond angle is also changed from 1200 te 1040.

7.      Ca3N2 Lewis struktuur formele aanklag

The formal charge is a concept that predicts the charge present within the molecule assuming the same electronegativity. Let us calculate the formal charge of Ca3N2.

The formal charge of the Ca3N2 is zero because it is a neutral molecule. The charge of three ca atoms is fully neutralized by the charge of two N atoms. The magnitude of change of N is greater than the Ca. also due to satisfaction of the valency of two atoms neutralized each other by the charge.

  • The formal charge of the Ca3N2 can be calculated by the formula, F.C. = Nv - NLP -1/2 Nbp
  • The formal charge accumulated by each Ca atom, 2-0-(4/2) = 0
  • The formal charge accumulated by each N atom, 5-2-(6/2) = 0
  • So, the overall formal charge by the three Ca atoms and two N atoms are, 0*2 + 0*3 = 0

8.      Ca3N2 lewis struktuur resonansie

Delocalization of electrons cloud by different skeleton forms of the molecules is known as resonance. Let us explore the resonance of Ca3N2.

There are two double bonds and lone pairs present within the molecule, so it shows different resonating structures via delocalization of the π electron clouds. There is the excess electron density present over the N atom as lone pairs and it can undergo resonance with the consecutive double bonds.

Ca3N2 Resonating Structures

The above three are the different skeleton forms of the Ca3N2. Among the three structure I is the most contributing structure because it has more stability. Structure I contains more covalent bonds after that structure II is the 2nd contributing structure because it has a lower number of covalent bonds.

9.      Ca3N2 verbastering

Atomic orbitals of different energy cannot make a bond so they undergo hybridization to form an equivalent hybrid orbital. Let us learn about the hybridization of Ca3N2.

The hybridization of central N in Ca3N2 is sp2 which can be predicted from the following table.

struktuur   verbastering
Toestand van
van sentrale atoom
1.Lineêr         2         sp /sd / pd1800
3 sp2                   1200
3.Tetraëdraal 4 sd3/ sp3109.50
5sp3d/dsp3900 (aksiaal),
5.Oktaedraal  6        sp3d2/d2sp3900
7sp3d3/d3sp3900, 720
  • Ons kan die hibridisasie bereken deur die konvensie formule, H = 0.5(V+M-C+A),
  • So, the hybridization of central N is, ½(5+1+0+0) = 3 (sp2)
  • One s orbital and two p orbitals of N are involved in the hybridization.
  • The lone pairs of N are also included in the hybridization.

10. Is Ca3N2 soliede?

The definition of the solid molecule is that at room temperature the lattice energy is very high and atoms are closely packed. Let us see whether Ca3N2 solied is of nie.

Ca3N2 is closely packed in the physical state and exists as a solid form. Because there is two double bond present within the molecule so the bond interactions are very strong here and all atoms are closely present. Each atom is present near another. There will be also strong covalent interaction present.

Ca3N2 is solid because van der Waal’s interaction between substituent atoms is very high for this reason all atoms are present in close proximity to one another at room temperature.

11. Is Ca3N2 oplosbaar in water?

 The solubility in water depends on the nature of the bonding of the molecule and also the temperature applied. Let us see whether Ca3N2 is oplosbaar in water of nie.

Ca3N2 is soluble because it easily gets dissociated in water and breaks its bond. The polarity nature is also responsible for solubility. Also, there is less part of hydrophobic part present that increases water oplosbaarheid.

Also water and Ca3N2 both are polar, so Ca3N2 soluble in water (like dissolve like).

12. Is Ca3N2 polêr of nie-polêr?

The polarity of a molecule depends on the presence of a permanent dipole moment, it indicates the direction of the dipole moment. Let us see whether Ca3N2 polêr is of nie.

Ca3N2 is polêr and it has permanent dipole-moment present between Ca to N. Ca is electropositive so the dipole moment flows from the itself to electronegative N site. The electronegativity difference between two atoms is more than 0.4D so there will be a dipole-moment existing.

Why and how Ca3N2 is polêre?

Ca3N2 is polar because the asymmetric structure of the molecule is the main reason. The shape of the molecule is bent so when dipole-moment flows from electropositive Ca to electronegative N then it cannot be canceled out by the same amount of dipole-moment because the direction is not opposite.

13. Is Ca3N2 'n molekulêre verbinding?

The substance is called compound when two or more atoms make a perfect bond with satisfying the valency of the atoms. Let check if Ca3N2 is a molecular compound or not.

Ca3N2 is a molecular compound because all the valency of the substituents atoms is fully satisfied here. The stable valency of Ca is two and for N stable valency is 3. Here the proportion of the atom is 3: 2 for Ca and N because of the satisfaction of their valency

14. Is Ca3N2 suur of basis?

According to the Arrhenius theory if a molecule releases H+ of OH- in an aqueous solution then it will be called acid or base. Let see whether Ca3N2 suur of basis is.

Ca3N2 neither be acid nor be base as per Arrhenius’s theory because in the aqueous solution, Ca3N2 cannot release H+ of OH- because those ions are absent in the molecules. But it can be categorized as lewis acid because it can donate electron density towards the electron-poor center and acts as lewis acid.

Why and how does Ca3N2 tree op soos lewis suur?

Ca3N2 can acts as lewis acid because each N has one lone pair and that lone pair can be donated because they are no longer present in the s orbital of N rather they are present in one of the hybrid orbitals. A hybrid orbital has less electronegativity than a pure s orbital so donation occurred easily.

15. Is Ca3N2 elektroliet?

On electrolysis of a molecule in solution and break into ions and those ions carry charge through the solution. Let check whether Ca3N2 is 'n elektroliet of nie.

Ca3N2 behaves as an electrolyte on electrolysis of Ca3N2 occurred then the molecule breaks into two different ions, one is Ca2+ and the other N-. Daardie2+ ions are deposited in the anode whereas N- is deposited in the cathode. So those ions make the solution charged because they are charged particles.

Why and how Ca3N2 is 'n sterk elektroliet?

Ca3N2 behaves as a strong electrolyte because on the electrolysis Ca2+ is formed as the cation. The charge density of Ca2+ is very high and also its mobility is very fast so it can carry electricity through the solution in a very faster way, again N- is a stronger anion due to higher electronegativity.

16. Is Ca3N2 sout?

Salt is formed by a cation other than H+ and anion other than OH- and there is an ionic interaction occurred between them. Let us see if Ca3N2 is 'n sout of nie.

Ca3N2 can be thought of as salt because it is formed by Ca2+ en N- which are other than H+ en OH- ions. Also, there is some kind of ionic interaction occurred between two strong positive and negative charges. Also, salt carried electricity on electrolysis, being a electrolyte it can carry electricity.

17. Is Ca3N2 ionies of kovalent?

Every covalent molecule has some % of ionic character or vice versa – Fajan’s rule of polarizability. Let see whether Ca3N2 is ionies of kovalent.

Ca3N2 is a covalent molecule which is formed by the hybridization of the central N atom, which is sp2. A covalent molecule always shows hybridization. But there is some kind of ionic interaction present between Ca2+ en N-, so it has some % of ionic character.

Ca3N2 is ionic because the Ca2+ has a higher charge potential and it can polarize the anion. Again, the size of the N- ion is larger due to the extra electron, so it has higher polarizability and can be polarized by the cation, and showing ionic character.


Ca3N2 is an ionic molecule so it can act as salt. It is a strong electrolyte also. The lone pairs of N can be donated to any reaction center to participate in various chemical reactions and make the molecule reactive. But the presence of a double bond makes the molecule stable also.

Biswarup Chandra Dey

Hi......ek is Biswarup Chandra Dey, ek het my Meestersgraad in Chemie voltooi. My spesialiseringsgebied is Anorganiese Chemie. Chemie gaan nie net oor lees reël vir reël en memorisering nie, dit is 'n konsep om op 'n maklike manier te verstaan ​​en hier deel ek met jou die konsep oor chemie wat ek leer omdat kennis die moeite werd is om dit te deel.

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